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08:40   Session 14: CHP units
Chair: Joaquín Navarro-Esbrí
20 mins
Grzegorz Zywica, Jan Kicinski, Tomasz Kaczmarczyk, Eugeniusz Ihnatowicz, Tomasz Turzynski, Sebastian Bykuć
Abstract: The micro CHP power plant with ORC is nowadays one of the fastest growing technologies, when it comes to combined generation of heat and power on a small scale [1]. This paper presents the prototype of such a power plant, elaborated at the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PASci, Gdansk. The first launch of the prototype took place in April 2014. Since then, different types of experimental research are conducted the purpose of which is to assess the characteristics of constructed installation and its optimization. The paper discusses the construction of the micro cogeneration power plant with ORC, its main subassemblies and experimentally determined characteristics. While designing this device, unique at a national scale, previous research results have been used [2]. The source of heat is a newly-developed boiler, adapted to burn biomass. Electricity was generated thanks to specially designed vapour microturbine [3]. The gas bearings which are supplied by working medium allow the turbogenerator to have a space-saving, hermetical structure. All power plant subassemblies are controlled and monitored by common automation system. In the article the selected results of experimental studies which has been carried out since the first launch are discussed. Thermal and flow characteristics were presented, allowing the evaluation of operating efficiency of boiler, heat exchangers, pumps, valves and other subassemblies. In addition, the test results concerning turbogenerator were attached, including its power output and efficiency for various cycle parameters. Vibration level was also monitored during the experimental studies. The results obtained showed that the developed prototype operates in accordance with design solutions and boiler’s thermal output of 25 kW makes it possible to generate more than 2 kW of electric power. The results also confirmed that this system may be used to develop a commercial version for this type of device. REFERENCES [1] J. Kiciński, Do we have chance for small-scale energy generation? The examples of technologies and devices for distributed energy systems in micro & small scale in Poland. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 749-756, 2013 [2] T. Kaczmarczyk, E. Ihnatowicz, S. Bykuć, G. Żywica, Z. Kozanecki, Experimental investigation of the ORC system in a cogenerative domestic power plant with a microturbine and an expansion valve. ASME ORC 2013, 2nd International Seminar on ORC Power System, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), 2013 [3] J. Kiciński, G. Żywica, Steam microturbines in distributed cogeneration, Springer 2014
20 mins
Stefano Ganassin, Jos van Buijtenen
Abstract: A high efficiency Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power unit of 165 kWe has been developed by Tri-O-Gen B.V. of The Netherlands. The ORC system is based on a thermally stable hydro-carbon as a working fluid, hence suitable for direct use of intermediate temperature heat sources. The unit is capable of transforming heat flows at temperatures between 350 and 600 ºC into electricity. Typical applications involve the exhaust gasses of gas- or diesel engines and small gas turbines. Further applications involve biomass combustion, incinerators, industrial residual heat and industrial flares. This paper describes the application of biomass fuelled cogeneration units, as in operation and on order now. Wood or biomass is gaining interest as energy source for small district heating networks, while it is already widely used when available as a by-product, e.g. in sawmills. During combustion, temperatures reached are way above the level needed for the heating purpose. Hence, there is a considerable amount of exergy available, which can be used to generate electricity. By applying an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system, flue gasses from the wood combustor deliver their high temperature heat to be converted into electricity, leaving lower temperature heat to be supplied to the district heating grid, or to be used for local heating and drying. This can be done in various ratios between power and heat, thus following the varying heat demand while maintaining total system efficiency. Triogen developed an innovative system, where the ORC is connected directly to the flue gas flow, without the need of an intermediate system, including connections to the available heat sink. The system set-up, flue gas cleaning and eventual evaporator cleaning are described in this paper, together with operational experience gained so far in several units.
20 mins
Sebastian Bykuć, Łukasz Breńkacz, Grzegorz Zywica
Abstract: The paper presents the construction and the first results of analyzes performed on the newly built micro CHP ORC power plant test stand. The research covers initial start-up tests. This test stand has been built at the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk, Poland. It is a universal test stand where it is possible to examine among others micro turbines of various designs operating on a low boiling agent. The test stand is simulating Micro CHP based on ORC technology cogeneration unit producing electricity and heat as hot water up to 55C (design conditions) applicable for low temperature heating (floor or wall heating systems). The supersonic turbine with a capacity of up to 3 [kW] was installed on the test stand. The HFE 7100 is a working medium in this system. This article briefly describes the construction of laboratory test stand, it is composed of turbine, pump, heat exchangers, regenerative heat exchanger and a set of sensors. The paper presents the results of experimental studies, for example graphs showing variations in temperature and in pressure at various measurement points on the test stand. The article also includes graphs of power generated by ORC turbine as a function of available pressure difference.
20 mins
Daniela Gewald, Katharina Rostek, Andreas Schuster, Richard Aumann
Abstract: Worldwide there is a potential resource of 4300 GWth of waste heat e.g. from engine power plants or industrial processes available that is nowadays left to dissipate naturally and equals the loss of 100 million litres of Diesel per hour. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology utilizes waste heat e.g. from biogas power, geothermal power and CHP plants or industrial processes and converts it CO2-free into electrical energy. ORC plants and modules are commercially available and economically profitable only in large and medium scale applications with electric power outputs of 50 kWel and larger. However, particularly large numbers of similar small scale waste heat sources, for example gas/diesel engine product families in CHP applications offer a huge potential for the implementation of standardized ORC modules. Especially in those applications part of the engine waste heat is often directly used e.g. in small heating networks or for fermentation and drying processes in biogas plants. This usually excludes the operation of an ORC module even if there is still a significant amount of waste heat that can be utilized only seasonally or is dissipated. Considering such frequently found plant configurations the Orcan Energy GmbH has developed a flexible small scale “CHP-ready” ORC module – the ePack Hybrid – that can provide both, heat and power from the waste heat source by variable operation of an electricity-generation-only- and a CHP-mode. By the integration of a working fluid-to-water- and a fluid-to-air-condenser, the ePack Hybrid can provide hot water up to 80 °C if required or dissipate the condenser heat into the environment. According to the operational conditions (CHP share, required feed temperature, ambient air, etc.) the ePack Hybrid has a flexible net electric power output of 12 kW to 22 kW. In order to take into account also further important market requirements as there are inter alia needs for excellent cost efficiency, high reliability, low maintenance effort and easy plug & play installation, the ePack design is based on standard off-the-shelf components and on innovative and patented technology features. These features make the ePack Hybrid solution not only economically highly efficient but also outstandingly reliable. With excellent results from extensive system and field tests the ePack Hybrid is ready for commercialization and available as pre-series product. The paper will explain the concept of the ePack Hybrid, and data from reference installations and operational experience will be presented.
20 mins
Christoph Wieland, Dominik Meinel, Hartmut Spliethoff
Abstract: The present study investigates the flexibility and suitability of different Combined Heat and Power concepts. An integrated concept for heat decoupling with a two-stage ORC concept and turbine bleeding is introduced and compared with other state-of-the-art concepts. The flexibility of the integrated system is determined for different isentropic fluids and siloxanes. Under general circumstances siloxanes are not suitable for turbine bleeding, due to their dry expansion behaviour. However, this picture changes in this CHP context. A comparison is made for different temperature levels of heat transfer fluid. Based on OMTS as the working fluid other CHP concepts are compared with this integrated concept its benefits are then determined by calculating the produced electricity per year. Therefore the integration of the CHP concept into a virtual district heating network based on annual load duration curves is investigated and the annual electricity revenues can be calculated. Based on these electricity revenues per year higher manufacturing costs due to a higher system complexity can be compared.